The Effect of Lithium Excess on NMC-721 using Oxalate Co-precipitation

Main Article Content

R. D. Nanda
S. A. Kristianto
E. Kartini
M. Fakhrudin


Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (Li-NMC) has been regarded as preferred cathode material for Lithium-ion battery (LIB), compared to other materials such as Lithium Cobalt Oxide (LCO) and Lithium Manganese Oxide (LMO). Ni-rich content displays severe cycling performance and needs to be addressed to improve its performance of electric vehicle. This research focused on synthesis NMC-721 precursors with the oxalate co-precipitation. Furthermore, a variation of lithium hydroxide with the excess of 3% and 5% were added into the precursors, then calcined at temperature 800 ℃ for 12 hours. The product of precursor was analyzed by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Particle Size Analysis (PSA) to analyze elemental composition and particle size, respectively. Meanwhile, the NMC-721 cathodes were characterized by an X-Ray Diffraction. The XRF data of precursor shows the ratio of transition metals at 7.5:1.5:1 identifying that more Ni content and less Mn content in the NMC-721, due to oxalate co-precipitation. The PSA shows that the average diameter of the precursor was 9.19 ± 0.31 (µm). The XRD result shows that the crystal structure of NMC-721 cathode belongs to hexagonal structure. It can be concluded that the NMC-721 were successfully synthesized and can be applied for lithium-ion battery.

Article Details



E. Gerold, S. Luidold, and H. Antrekowitsch, “Selective precipitation of metal oxalates from lithium ion battery leach solutions,” Metals (Basel)., vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1–15, 2020, doi: 10.3390/met10111435.

M. S. E. Houache, C. H. Yim, Z. Karkar, and Y. Abu-Lebdeh, “On the Current and Future Outlook of Battery Chemistries for Electric Vehicles—Mini Review,” Batteries, vol. 8, no. 7, 2022, doi: 10.3390/batteries8070070.

A. G. Yustinus Purwamargapratala, Indra Gunawan , D.N.Haerani, Sudirman Evvy Kartini, Anne Zulfia, “Effect Of Sodium In LiNi0,5Mn0,3Co0,2O2 As A Lithium Ion Battery Cathode Material By Solid State Reaction Method,” vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 131–147, 2022, doi:

Y. M. Alqahtani and Q. L. Williams, “Reduction of Capacity Fading in High-Voltage NMC Batteries with the Addition of Reduced Graphene Oxide,” Materials (Basel)., vol. 15, no. 6, 2022, doi: 10.3390/ma15062146.

D. Doughty and E. P. Roth, “A general discussion of Li Ion battery safety,” Electrochem. Soc. Interface, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 37–44, 2012, doi: 10.1149/2.F03122if.

S. S. Nisa et al., “Fast Approach to Obtain Layered Transition-Metal Cathode Material for Rechargeable Batteries,” Batteries, vol. 8, no. 1, 2022, doi: 10.3390/batteries8010004.

X. Zhang, W. J. Jiang, A. Mauger, Qilu, F. Gendron, and C. M. Julien, “Minimization of the cation mixing in Li1+x(NMC)1-xO2 as cathode material,” J. Power Sources, vol. 195, no. 5, pp. 1292–1301, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.09.029.

C. Z. Qiming Liu , Huali Zhu , Jun Liu , Xiongwei Liao , Zhuolin Tang and L. L. and Z. C. Mengming Yuan , Junfei Duan, “High-Performance Lithium-Rich Layered Oxide,” J. Mater. Sci., vol. 55, no. 25, p. 334, 2020, [Online]. Available:

X. Yao et al., “Oxalate co-precipitation synthesis of LiNi 0.6 Co 0.2 Mn 0.2 O 2 for low-cost and high-energy lithium-ion batteries,” Mater. Today Commun., vol. 19, pp. 262–270, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.mtcomm.2019.02.001.

A. S. Wijareni, H. Widiyandari, A. Purwanto, A. F. Arif, and M. Z. Mubarok, “Morphology and Particle Size of a Synthesized NMC 811 Cathode Precursor with Mixed Hydroxide Precipitate and Nickel Sulfate as Nickel Sources and Comparison of Their Electrochemical Performances in an NMC 811 Lithium-Ion Battery,” Energies, vol. 15, no. 16, 2022, doi: 10.3390/en15165794.

S. Refly et al., “Regeneration of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2cathode active materials from end-of-life lithium-ion batteries through ascorbic acid leaching and oxalic acid coprecipitation processes,” ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng., vol. 8, no. 43, pp. 16104–16114, 2020, doi: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.0c01006.

S. K. Tolouei, Ahad Kaflou,A Sadrnezaad, “Effects of lithium excess and Ni content on the electrochemical performance of Li1 + x (Ni0.45-x Mn0.4Co0.15) O2 lithium-ion cathode materials in stoichiometric state,” Mater. Res. Express, 2018.

A. D. Refino et al., “Versatilely tuned vertical silicon nanowire arrays by cryogenic reactive ion etching as a lithium-ion battery anode,” Sci. Rep., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2021, doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-99173-4.

H. Widiyandari, A. N. Sukmawati, H. Sutanto, C. Yudha, and A. Purwanto, “Synthesis of LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 cathode material by hydrothermal method for high energy density lithium ion battery,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 1153, no. 1, pp. 0–7, 2019, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1153/1/012074.

T. Sieber, J. Ducke, A. Rietig, T. Langner, and J. Acker, “Recovery of li(Ni0.33mn0.33co0.33)o2 from lithium-ion battery cathodes: Aspects of degradation,” Nanomaterials, vol. 9, no. 2, 2019, doi: 10.3390/nano9020246.

D. Wang, I. Belharouak, G. Zhou, and K. Amine, “Synthesis of Lithium and Manganese-Rich Cathode Materials via an Oxalate Co-Precipitation Method,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 160, no. 5, pp. A3108–A3112, 2013, doi: 10.1149/2.016305jes.

Z. Chang et al., “Synthesis and characterization of high-density non-spherical Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 cathode material for lithium ion batteries by two-step drying method,” Electrochim. Acta, vol. 53, no. 20, pp. 5927–5933, 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.electacta.2008.03.066.

E. D. Orlova, A. A. Savina, S. A. Abakumov, A. V Morozov, and M. Abakumov, “SS symmetry Cathodes for Li-Ion Batteries,” vol. 2, pp. 1–15, 2021.

F. Wu et al., “The positive role of (NH4)3AlF6 coating on Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 oxide as the cathode material for lithium-ion batteries,” RSC Adv., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1191–1199, 2017, doi: 10.1039/c6ra24947g.

Y. Ding, P. Zhang, Y. Jiang, and D. Gao, “Effect of rare earth elements doping on structure and electrochemical properties of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for lithium-ion battery,” Solid State Ionics, vol. 178, no. 13–14, pp. 967–971, 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.ssi.2007.04.012.

Y. Gao, M. V. Yakovleva, and W. B. Ebner, “Novel LiNi1-xTix/2Mgx/2O2 compounds as cathode materials for safer lithium-ion batteries,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 117–119, 1998, doi: 10.1149/1.1390656.